Print ISSN: 2790-0207

Online ISSN: 2790-0215

Keywords : Children

ATRA use in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

Susan Mahmood

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 64-86
DOI: 10.32894/kjms.2022.174186

        Acute Leukemia is a the result of malignant event or events occurring in early hematopoietic precursor, instead of proliferation and differentiation normally, the affect cells give rise to progency that fail to differentiate and instead continue to proliferate in an uncontrolled fashion.
         Retrospective study, carried between January 2001, and August 2006, Ninety four children ( 15 years of ages) were diagnosed as AML by bone marrow examination (aspirate and sometimes biopsy), twenty two of these children diagnosed as APL, fourteen were treated by chemotherapy and eight of these children treated by ATRA and specific protocol.
        M 2 subtype of AML is most common subtype.
 M 3 second most  common  subtype  of  AML  with  peak  age  of
frequency 10-11 years with female predominance.
 Combined ATRA  with  chemotherapy  for  treatment  of  APL
improves survival rate of children.
 The most  common  complication  of  ATRA  encounter  during
treatment was dryness of skin and mucosa.

A comparative study betwee Medulloblastoma And Cerebellar astrocytoma In children

Salim Aljabbary

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 97-110
DOI: 10.32894/kjms.2021.172831

study was conducted between 2000 & 2002, 50 children with histopathologyically verified medulloblastoma and cerebellar astrocytoma in neurosurgical department of Surgical Specialties Hospital. Ages ranged from 2-19 years, peak incidence between 5-10 years. No significant gender differences found.

CT scan confirmed features of medulloblastoma: midline location, well defined margin & hyperdensity of lesion with homogenous enhancement after I.V. contrast infusion. In cerebellar astrocytoma, 60% were midline tumor, most of which were solid & 40% were hemispheric lesion, most of which were cystic. Calcification on CT scans seen more in medulloblastoma.
Shunt operation was the main procedure conducted for treatment of hydrocephalus associated with these tumors, but other CSF diversion procedures, especially safety burrhole at time of tumor resection was carried on in cystic lesion located off the midline. Total removal was achieved in 46.7% of children with medulloblastomas & 50% of children with cerebellar astrocytomas. Brain stem violation was evident more in medulloblastoma & was the main factor behind the incomplete tumor removal in significant number of cases that adversely affected the outcome.
postoperative complications (pseudomeningocele, cerebellar mutism, meningitis, CSF leak, cranial nerve palsy…etc.) encountered more in children with medulloblastoma.
Mortality rate was 6.7% in medulloblastomas & 10% in cerebellar astrocytoma. The cause of death in patients with medulloblastoma was meningitis & patients with cerebellar astrocytomas was brain stem injury.
early diagnosis & total removal of tumor with proper postoperative care would essentially decrease the postoperative morbidity & mortality

Hypertension in children in Kirkuk city

Shan Nadhmi

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 125-138
DOI: 10.32894/kjms.2021.172928

The predominant type of hypertension in pediatric age group is the secondary hypertension, with chronic kidney disease being the most common cause, but, nowadays, there is a rising incidence of primary hypertension due to the rising incidence of obesity in children. 260 patients (from 1-14 years old) were collected from pediatric hospital in Kirkuk city and Baghdad road polyclinic at Kirkuk city, BMI was measured, renal function test, serum electrolyte and lipid profile are done for all the patients, serum cortisol done for the hypertensive patients, hypertension was found in 13 (5%) of our patients; 5 patients (2%) were complaining from primary hypertension and their BMI was > 30 kg/m2 , and 8 (3%) patients were complaining from secondary hypertension, renal impairment was the commonest cause. Secondary hypertension has found to be more common than the primary with the renal cause being the commonest one, all the cases were complaining from dyslipidemia.