Print ISSN: 2790-0207

Online ISSN: 2790-0215

Main Subjects : Pediatrics

Risk factors for severe hyperbilirubinemia and exchange transfusion in neonates

Noorjan Mohammed

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, In Press
DOI: 10.32894/kjms.2023.137427.1051

Neonatal jaundice is a common cause of neonatal admission to the hospital. The neonatal jaundice frequency has been increased last decade. 65% of term babies develop jaundice clinically in 1st week (in preterm babies 80%).
One hundred and sixty four neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia, were enrolled in this study. Most important relevant informative data was taken during admission to the hospital. American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines were applied in management of the patients, which was been either phototherapy or exchange transfusion with phototherapy
MeanTSB level of 164 cases was 16.6mg/dl. TSB was significantly high in the male, with Rh-ve mothers and Rh+ve babies, more than 37weeks gestational age, admitted after 72 hours of life, were having history of previous siblings affected with jaundice and or received phototherapy and family history of hemolytic diseases. Phototherapy alone was used as treatment modality in most of the patients. On admission to the NCU, the mean age of the infants who needed exchange transfusion 4.97 ±2.24 while the mean TSB level was 20.2±2.84 mg/dL. The most common cause for ET was early discharge from the maternity unit & late admission to the NCU 72.4%.
Severe hyperbilirubinemia was been more common in male neonates, > 37weeks of gestational age, with Rh-ve mothers and Rh+ve babies, who admitted after 72hrs of life, . Most of cases treated by phototherapy. The most common cause for ET was early discharge from the maternity unit & late admission to the NCU.

ATRA use in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

Susan Mahmood

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, In Press

Retrospective study, carried between January 2001, and August 2006, Ninety four children (c 15 years of ages) were diagnosed as AML by bone marrow examination (aspirate and sometimes biopsy), twenty two of these children diagnosed as APL, fourteen were treated by chemotherapy and eight of these children treated by ATRA and specific protocol.
The information of this study was obtained from files of patients in hematology and oncology unit in central teaching hospital from children regarding age, sex, resistance, type of AML, complete blood count at diagnosis, response to treatment complication during treatment.
The treatment plan of these eight patient in induction was ATRA (25 mg/m2/day) administrated orally in two equally divided doses associated with daunorubicin (25 mg/m2/day) for two consecutive day only for those with WBCc >10 ×109/L at day one, WBCc > 5×10 9/L at day fifteen at which bone marrow aspiration done this cycle continued for thirty day. In consolidation cycle which includes cycles of daunorubicin stander dose cytorabine by subcutaneous injection with ATRA orally in two divided doses. Oral 6- mercaptopurine and methotrexate combined with ATRA every 3 month was administrated to all patient who obtained complete remission (CR) (


Rana Kasab

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, In Press

Prospective study involved 63 patient admitted to kirkuk pediatric hospital from 15/5/2008 to 15/7/2008 collectively patients submitted to all required investigations TSB level , complete blood picture, reticulocyte count direct coombs test via two methods antihuman globulin test and old standard technique of o cell technique ,the most common cause of neonatal jaundice among them was physiological one and ABO incompatibility being the next common one male patients were the commonest among these patients ,blood group of most of patients was Followed by b ,being the mothers blood group o was the predominant one in this study, this disease was mostly seen in low birth patients (200mmole/liter) noticed among these patient
We concluded that ABO incompatibility is a well documented cause of neonatal morbidity in this city finally we recommend performing reticulocyte count , complete blood picture ,total serum bilirubin and direct coombs test in every patient with blood group A or B and mother blood group o sine a lot of complication can be prevented by diagnosing this serious illness.

Iron Deficiency Anemia in Children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome

Mayyadah Kifah Khawaja; Faliha Hassan

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2022, Volume 10, Issue 2, Pages 18-30
DOI: 10.32894/kjms.2022.136168.1036

Anemia is one of the many complications seen in patients with persistent nephrotic syndrome and may occur as a result of excessive urinary losses of iron, transferrin, erythropoietin, transcobalamin and/or metals.
Aim of the study: search for iron deficiency in children with nephrotic syndrome.
Patient and method: This cross-sectional study included two groups of patients, 40 patients with steroid sensitive and resistant nephrotic syndrome, aged 2-12 year of age, of either sex, who attended Child Central Teaching hospital during the period from June 2018 to April 2019. A thorough full history and clinical examination was done and all patients have been sent for investigation to search for anemia.
Results: 35% of patients with steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome were complaining from anemia, while none of patients with steroid responsive had anemia of any cause.
There was a significant difference (P= 0.001) between study group in Blood Film results as all patients of responsive group showed normal blood film compared to only seventy-five percent in resistant group.
Conclusion: iron deficiency anemia has been observed to occur in higher frequency in steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome due to difficulty in controlling proteinuria and the continuing iron losses.

Hypertension in children in Kirkuk city

Shan Nadhmi

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 2, Pages 125-138
DOI: 10.32894/kjms.2021.172928

The predominant type of hypertension in pediatric age group is the secondary hypertension, with chronic kidney disease being the most common cause, but, nowadays, there is a rising incidence of primary hypertension due to the rising incidence of obesity in children. 260 patients (from 1-14 years old) were collected from pediatric hospital in Kirkuk city and Baghdad road polyclinic at Kirkuk city, BMI was measured, renal function test, serum electrolyte and lipid profile are done for all the patients, serum cortisol done for the hypertensive patients, hypertension was found in 13 (5%) of our patients; 5 patients (2%) were complaining from primary hypertension and their BMI was > 30 kg/m2 , and 8 (3%) patients were complaining from secondary hypertension, renal impairment was the commonest cause. Secondary hypertension has found to be more common than the primary with the renal cause being the commonest one, all the cases were complaining from dyslipidemia.


Jameel Azeez

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 30-46
DOI: 10.32894/kjms.2021.169936

Background: Kerosene poisoning is one of the most common accidental poisoning in children in developing countries due common use of kerosene in house-hold and unsafe storage practices
Aim Of The Study: The aim of this study was to identify the demographics, incidence, clinical features, radiological findings and treatment of kerosene poisoning in children in Kirkuk city.
Patients And Methods: Seventy two cases were admitted immediately to the emergency department in Kirkuk pediatric hospitals, Kerosene ingestion during the period from the 1st of june 2020 to the 1st of june 2021. Fifty four cases (75%) were boys and 18 cases (25%) were girls, and age ranges from 10 months to 10 years. Information regarding the history was taken from their parents , by special questionnaire paper (appendix) statistical method is used in this study.

1. It appears clearly that kerosene pneumonia in Iraq is most often of mild to moderate degree of severity with no mortality.

Bacterial neonatal sepsis and outcome in kirkuk city 2021

Jameel Azeez

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 84-100
DOI: 10.32894/kjms.2021.169937

Sepsis is the commonest cause of neonatal mortality, it is responsible for about (30 - 50% ) of neonatal deaths every year in developing countries.

Two hundred neonates were studied, sepsis was confirmed in 175 neonates (87.5%) by positive blood culture. Preterm neonates in this study were118 (59%), Prolonged rupture of amniotic membranes( > 18-hrs), was reported in 123 (61.5%), history of maternal fever was reported in 130 (65%). incidence in males was 120 (60%) while in females was 80 (40%). Early-onset disease (0-7 days) had occurred in 69 (34.5%), while 131 (65.5%) was the percentage of late-onset disease(8-30 days) . most of the late-onset disease was nosocomial infections 60 (53.57%). The predominant isolates in both early and late-onset diseases were Gram-negative bacteria 138 (78.8%) . the common organism in early-onset sepsis was E.coli 31 (49.20%), while the common organism in late-onset sepsis was Klebsiella 50 (44.64%). The total mortality rate was 82 (41%), in the early neonatal onset was 26 (42.02%) and while in the late neonatal-onset disease was 56 (42.7%) was. Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeroginosa have high mortality (100%), but there is no death was recorded in pneumococcal sepsis.
Conclusion Neonatal septicemia generally is present in developing countries more common than in developed countries.

The manifestation of COVID 19 virus in children in Kirkuk city

Shan Nadhmi

Kirkuk Journal of Medical Sciences, 2021, Volume 9, Issue 1, Pages 204-217
DOI: 10.32894/kjms.2021.169938

The study is dealing with a pandemic and highly infectious disease which is COVID 19, that caused a pandemic in world and affected a huge number of children in Kirkuk city.
The objectives of this study are to assess the different presentations, signs & symptoms of COVID 19 in children in Kirkuk city in order to diagnose these cases as soon as possible and isolate them .
This is a community-based descriptive cross-sectional study done in children presenting to Pediatric hospital in Kirkuk city and privet clinics from the period of June 2020 until July 2021, 120 children infected with COVID 19 virus and diagnosed by PCR from nasal swap were collected using a questionaire, containing details of his condition.
The study had showed that children may present with a variety of symptoms, like: fever, cough, nasal congestion, loss of smell and/or taste, dyspnea or GIT symptoms like: diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal, others with headache, dizziness, muscle aches and poor feeding.
Children infected with COVID 19 might present with a wide variety of symptoms, like respiratory, GIT, CNS or non-specific symptoms, and it is important to send them nasal swap for PCR for early diagnosis, isolation and start the proper treatment with them