College of Health Sciences/ Hawler Medical University
Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis refers to the vaginal infection that is caused most commonly by candida species, especially candida albicans, women in their lifetime at risk to infect by candida species. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship of Vulvovaginal infection with Candidiasis and its association with some risk factors and the incidence of different species of Candida among patients with vulvovaginitis. Methods: 300 samples from high vaginal swabs obtained from females attending maternity teaching hospital in Erbil City complained from signs and symptoms of valvovaginitis from the period September 2019 to February 2020. A questionnaire form prepared for each patient, who includes: age, clinical presentation and history of pregnancy, diabetes, and history of using contraceptives and the type of contraceptives. High vaginal swabs collected from patients and direct microscopic examination performed, cultured onto Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA), Blood agar and Macconkey agar and species identification done by using an automated VITEK 2 compact system. Results: From the total of 300 high vaginal swabs collected at Maternity hospital in Erbil city and prevalence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was (57%). The highest prevalence of positive cases were in the age range (30-34) years and the positive culture among pregnant women was 73(63.4%) and also the incidence of vulvovaginal candidiasis was higher among diabetic females 49(80.3%), The incidence of positive cultures of Candida spp. in the antibiotic users group were 61(64.4%) and also the positive culture for candida spp was higher among the contraceptive pills 40(60.6%) however for IUCD user the positive culture was 31(68.9%). The species of Candida species which identified by using Vitek system were distribute as follow: Candida albicans was 147(86%) Candida glabrata16 (9.4%),CandidaParapsilosis 6(3.5%)and, Candida krusei 2(1.2%). Conclusion: In the present study, vulvovaginal candidiasis is more in the young age group and more frequent in the pregnant ladies and the diabetic patients and those using antibiotic and contraceptives, either the pills or Intrauterine contraceptive device. Candida albicans had the highest percentage among other positive isolated from high vaginal swab and there was a significant relation between clinical presentation of the patient with the result of culture.