1 Department of Microbiology

2 Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology (College of Medicine/ Kirkuk University).


Background: Trichomonas vaginalis infection is a common sexually transmitted protozoal infection and is associated with several adverse health outcomes, such as preterm birth, delivery of a low–birth weight infant, and facilitation of sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus. The annual incidence rate in Iraq has been estimated range between 1.33% to 34%. However; there are no data on the prevalence of trichomoniasis among all reproductive-age women. Patients and methods: Total of 161 women from 15- 61 years who participated in the study form 1st October 2011 to 30th September 2012 with collection of vaginal swab specimens after taking consent from each patient. The vaginal fluids extracted from these swabs were evaluated for the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis using direct wet mount preparations, staining, and cultivation on special culture media. Results: Over all, 33 (20.49%) of 161 women were positive for trichomoniasis with 98.12 % of specificity and 100% of accuracy of wet mount preparations technique for parasite detection. Compared to culture methods that show low sensitivity and specificity P< 0.05 .Women aging from 50 years and above and those aging from 20 to 30 years revealed high rate of trichomoniais than other age groups P<0.05. Relationships between Trichomonas vaginalis distribution and color of vaginal discharges, pH, signs, symptoms, residency of women, occupation, height and body weight were statistically significant, greenish vaginal discharge with pH ranging from 4 to 6 reveal more trichomoniaisis mostly associated with high dominancy of burning sensation and vaginal itches, P < 0.05. While thin and short women from urban area and officers, their vaginal discharges examination show high frequency of trichomoniasis in contrast to other women, P<0.05 . Trichomonas coexists were recognized with high rates of Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans in vaginal discharges especially among women aging from 20 to 30 years, P < 0.05. Conclusions: Under clinical examination women with abnormal vaginal discharges, burning sensation and genital itches should be checked for trichomoniasis using high sensitive and specific tests: direct wet amount preparations and fixed slide stained with giemsa stain, in addition to measuring the pH of the vaginal fluid and performing germ tube and whiff test for detecting vaginal thrush and bacterial vaginosis caused by Candida albicans and Gardnerella vaginal respectively.