Document Type : Original research


Ophthalmic department/Azady teaching hospital/ Kirkuk


Abstract: Purpose: To clarify the etiology of dry eye syndrome, distribution of age and
gender among study group and to identify risk factors for dry eye. Method: A descriptive
study done in Azady Teaching Hospital from 1 of July 2020 to 1 September 2021. The
research included 946 patients above 40 years of mixed population. Result: the mean age of
study group was 55,5 years, mean age of dry eye group was 57,2 years, The prevalence of dry
eye in was 17.8 % and founded to be maximum in the elderly as majority of diagnosed dry
eye patients were in their sixties 42%. Dry eye syndrome funded to be more common in
female (19.4%) than in male (15.8%). The main etiological factors in our study were either:
1-Ocular causes: eye lid diseases (blepharitis and MGD) 20%, abnormal ocular surface 12%,
old trachoma 4.8%, ocular surgery (3.6%). 2-systemic disease: were founded to be
rheumatoid arthritis (12%), diabetes (10.8%), thyroid disease (4.8%) Sjogren disease (2.4%)
and pemphigus (1.2%). 3-Drug induced dry eye: Drugs that contribute to dry eye syndrome
discovered to be mainly antihypertensive (15.4%), antiglaucoma (8.4%), antihistamine (2.4%)
and anticholinergic (1.2%). Conclusions: Dry eye disease is more common in people over 40,
and this should be taken into account when examining patients in ophthalmology clinics, Dry
is more common in women, especially postmenopausal Dry eye is a frequent disease and
correct diagnosis is the main line in treatment and, so we need to keep in mind those at higher


Main Subjects