Background: The differentiation between Entamoeba histolytica (pathogenic) and Entamoeba dispar (nonpathogenic), two morphologically indistinguishable species of Amoeba, is crucial for making treatment decisions and advancing public health understanding.
Methods: In the present investigation, spanning from January 1, 2023, to May 20, 2023, fecal samples were procured from a cohort of 220 pediatric patients, aged below 15 years, who presented with symptoms of diarrhea and/or abdominal discomfort. These patients sought medical attention at the Pediatric Hospital, Azadi Teaching Hospital, and Kirkuk Teaching Hospital, all located in Kirkuk City. The samples that exhibited positive results under microscopy were subjected to additional analysis using ELISA technique.
Result: The current data revealed that out of 220 stool samples examined with microscopy and iodin preparation, 93(42.27%) specimens were positive for histolytica/E. dispar trophozoites and cysts, while the remaining 127(57.73%) were negative for any amoebic stages. the male more infected than women and highest among children 1-5 years. The percentage of positive specimens that were tested with E. histolytica / dispar ELISA, these samples were microscopy positive and further confirmed with DRG ELISA. Out of 93 stool specimens, 59(63.44%) were positive, while the remaining specimens 34(36.56%) were negative despite been tested positive by microscopy. The DRG stool ELISA revealed sensitivity and specificity (69.28 % and 97.91 %) respectively and predictive value of (97 %).
Conclusions: The standard diagnostic tool in the health sector is microscopic inspection, which cannot distinguish between pathogenic and nonpathogenic amoeba ELISA is an alternate method for microscopy screening confirmation. males infected more than women and 1-5-year-olds more than others.